|Across The Board:||Three equal bets, to win, place and show, on one horse.|
|Allowance Race:||A non-claiming race which has conditions to determine the horses that are eligible to enter. For example, an allowance race might be open to horses that have not won three races.|
|Also Eligible:||An entered horse that will race only if a scratch occurs (at or prior to scratch time) in the body of the field.|
|Also-Ran:||Finished out of the money.|
|Apprentice:||Rookie jockey who receives weight allowances.|
|Backstretch:||1) The straightaway on the far side of the race track.
2) Area where stables are located.
|Bear Out:||To drift or veer out toward the outside of the track.|
|Bit:||Metal bar that fits in horse's mouth and is attached to the reins; used for control.|
|Bleeder:||Horse that bleeds during heavy exertion, usually from small vessels or capillaries in respiratory system.|
|Blinkers:||A common piece of racing equipment that contains eye cups which limit a horse's vision and prevent distraction.|
|Bloodline:||Pedigree of a horse.|
|Blow Out:||Workout before a race to limber up a horse.|
|Bolt:||A sharp left- or right-hand movement by a horse.|
|Book:||Jockey's record of riding engagements.|
|Break:||1) The start of a race.
2) To train a young horse to accept saddle, bridle and rider.
|Break Maiden:||When a horse gets his first win.|
|Breeze:||1)To run easily, under a hold, without much
2) A generic expression for a morning workout.
|Broodmare:||Female Thoroughbred used for breeding purposes.|
|Broodmare Sire:||The sire of the dam of a Thoroughbred.|
|Call:||1) To describe the running of a race.
2) A specific point in a race at which running positions are recorded.
3)A verbal contract between a jockey and a trainer.
|Card:||A day's racing program.|
|Cast:||1) A horse that had laid down or fallen and is unable
2) Lost or thrown, such as a horseshoe.
|Chalk:||The betting favorite.|
|Chart:||Result chart that shows all horses and their positions at various points in a given race along with the time of the race.|
|Chute:||Extension of the stretch allowing for long, straight runs from the gate to the first turn.|
|Circuit:||Tracks whose meets are in sequence, allowing stables to follow a circuit.|
|Claiming Race:||A type of race in which the horses are entered for a specific price and may be purchased (claimed) before the race. A claiming price helps to classify horses and keep the competition in a race fairly equal.|
|Clocker:||One who times workouts.|
|Close:||To gain ground on the leader.|
|Clubhouse Turn:||Usually the turn found on the right-hand side of the track as seen when facing the track from the stands.|
|Colors:||Jockey silks and cap done in horse owner's colors and pattern.|
|Colt:||A male horse that is four years old or younger.|
|Common:||A reference to a horse which lacks class and/or one which fails to give a full effort.|
|Condition Book:||Track publication for horsemen announcing conditions of upcoming races.|
|Coupled:||Two or more horses that have the same owners or trainers are said to be coupled. These horses run as an "entry," and a bet on one horse automatically includes the other.|
|Cuppy:||A description of a dirt track surface which is loose and dry, therefore tending to break away from the horses as they run.|
|Cushion:||The top level of the racing surface.|
|Daily Racing Form:||Daily newspaper of racing which provides statistics, racing news and past performance records of horses competing in races that day.|
|Dam:||The mother of a horse.|
|Dark Day:||A day when a track does not conduct racing during their regular season.|
|Dead Heat:||When two horses cross the finish line at the same time and are inseparable by the photo-finish camera, the race is declared a tie, or dead heat.|
|Dead Weight:||Tack and lead slabs that bring rider up to the horse's assigned weight.|
|Derby:||Stakes races for three-year-olds.|
|Disqualify:||To officially lower a horse's actual finish position due to interfering with other horses, carrying too little weight, not conforming to conditions of eligibility of having systemic substances above allowed limits.|
|Dogs:||Rubber cones placed away from the inner rail on the turf course during morning workouts in order to prevent wear and tear of the main portion of course; also sometimes used on dirt tracks when they are muddy or sloppy.|
|Dwelt:||When a horse breaks very slow from the gate.|
|Ease Up:||To slow a horse's stride to prevent undue exertion.|
|Eighth Pole:||Colored post inside the inner rail exactly one-eighth mile back from the finish line.|
|Farrier:||Blacksmith, one who makes and attaches horseshoes.|
|Fast Track:||1) Dry racing surface.
2) Description of a dirt surface on which faster than normal times are being recorded.
|Field:||1) Used to describe all the horses in a race.
2) Also when there are more starters in a race than the tote board is able to show odds for, the remaining horses run as a single betting option, or "field."
|Filly:||A female horse that is fours years old or younger.|
|Foal:||1) Newborn equine.
2) To give birth.
|Footing:||Condition of racing surface.|
|Form:||1) A horse's current condition.
2) Short for Daily Racing Form.
|Fractions:||Clocking of time at intervals in races or workouts.|
|Free-Running Type:||A horse which tends to take a strong hold of the bit and pull its way to lead during the early stages of a race.|
|Freshening:||Layoff or vacation from racing.|
|Furlong:||One eighth of a mile; most races are measured in furlongs.|
|Gelding:||A castrated horse.|
|Genuine:||Refers to an honest horse; one which gives everything it has in races.|
|Going Away:||To win while increasing lead.|
|Good Track:||A drying track surface between sloppy and fast.|
|Graduate:||1) To break maiden.
2) To describe a horse which has fulfilled one condition and moves on to a higher level.
|Green:||A description of a horse which is temperamentally immature.|
|Groom:||Stable employee assigned to tend to a horse or horses, including bringing the horse to the paddock for a race.|
|Halter:||Strap or rope by which horses are led.|
|Hand:||A horse's height is measured in "hands." A hand equals four inches.|
|Handicap:||1) To study the background of racehorses to determine
educated wagering choices.
2) A type of race in which horses are assigned specific weights in order to bring about an equal contest.
|Handle:||The total amount of money wagered. This term could refer to a particular race, day or season.|
|Heavy Track:||A running surface drier than muddy and quite slow.|
|Homestretch:||The stretch of track from the final turn to the finish line.|
|Horse:||The term applied to an un-castrated horse that is five years old or more.|
|Horse's Birthday:||All horses become one year older on January 1 of each year for purposes of competition.|
|Horsing:||A filly or mare in heat.|
|Infield:||The area within the inner racing surface.|
|In Hand:||Running under restraint to conserve energy.|
|Inquiry:||Investigation by officials to determine if a race was won fairly and without interference.|
|In The Money:||1) For fans; a win, place or show finish resulting in a
2) For owners; a finish resulting in receiving a portion of the purse.
|Irons:||Another name for stirrups, where jockeys place their feet when riding.|
|Jail:||Refers to the first month a claimed horse is in a new barn (new owner and trainer) whereby racing rules require it to be entered at a claiming price above that which it was claimed, should the new owner wish to race it.|
|Jockey Agent:||One who secures riding assignments for a jockey in return for a percent of the jockey's earnings.|
|Journeyman:||A licensed jockey who has completed his apprenticeship.|
|Juvenile:||A two-year-old equine.|
|Lead Pad:||Saddle pad with pockets to hold lead weights;
inserted to bring jockey up to assigned weight.
|Lead Pony:||1) Horse on which outrider or pony person escorts
Thoroughbreds onto track and to starting gate.
2) Any horse on the track that will not be racing.
|Leg Up:||1) To build a horse's stamina and speed through
2) To help a rider up on a horse.
|Length:||1)Refers to the length of the average horse.
2) Used to describe the distance between horses when a race is being run.
|Live Weight:||A jockey's weight.|
|Lock:||An apparent "sure thing," used to describe a horse's chance of winning.|
|Lugging In:||Used to describe a horse which is pulling strongly to the inside while running.|
|Maiden:||A horse of either sex that has never won a race.|
|Mare:||A female horse that is five years old or more.|
|Morning Glory:||A horse which works fast in the morning, but fails to perform to expectations when racing in the afternoon.|
|Morning Line:||The track handicapper's estimate of the probable odds in a race. These odds are printed in the program and posted on the tote board.|
|Mudder:||A horse that prefers muddy or sloppy tracks.|
|Muddy Track:||A surface with a good deal of moisture in it, but little or no standing water on it.|
|Objection:||Interference complaint made by a jockey or trainer.|
|Off The Board:||1) Finished out of the money.
2) Describes the betting action on a horse which is being very heavily bet.
|Off Track:||1) A running surface other than fast.
2) Wagering conducted away from the track.
|One-Paced:||A description of a horse with acceleration.|
|One-Run Type:||A horse which tends to lag toward the back of the pack during the early stages of a race before mounting a late run.|
|On The Nose:||A bet to win.|
|Outrider:||An official on a lead pony who leads the Thoroughbreds onto the track and to the gate; the outrider enforces the rules regarding conduct on the track.|
|Overlay:||Odds higher than they should be, based on horse's chances of winning. See keep's Handicapping tips for more information.|
|Overnight:||A listing of the next day's entries.|
|Overweight:||Weight over the amount officially assigned to a horse because the jockey is too heavy.|
|Pace:||The tempo set by the leaders in the early and middle stages of a race.|
|Paddock:||The area where horses are saddled prior to a race.|
|Pari-mutuel:||A system of wagering in which the total money wagered is distributed to winning ticket holders, less a fixed percentage returned for race track management, state tax and the racing industry. So, fans are wagering against each other and not the track.|
|Photo Finish:||Practice in which a photo is used to determine order of finish in a race.|
|Plater:||1) Claiming horse.
2) A farrier.
|Plodder:||A slow horse; one which lacks acceleration.|
|Pool:||The total amount of money wagered on type of bet.|
|Post:||1) The starting gate.
2) The time a race will begin.
|Post Position:||The horse's position in the starting gate, numbered from the inside rail.|
|Quarter:||1) Quarter mile, or two furlongs.
2) The side of the hoof.
|Rabbit:||A horse which is entered in a race to insure a fast pace.|
|Racing Secretary:||The race track official who writes the conditions for races, and also assigns weights in handicap races.|
|Racing Times:||A daily racing publication providing statistics, feature stories and analysis.|
|Rank:||A description of a horse which fights the rider's attempt to relax it during the early or middle stages of a race.|
|Ridgling:||A male equine with one testicle.|
|Route:||A long race, usually a mile or more.|
|Salute:||The wave of the whip by jockeys to the stewards after a race in customary request to dismount.|
|Scale of Weights:||Official listing of weights carried in a race by horses according to sex, age, distance of the race and the season.|
|School:||To train a horse, especially in the paddock and starting gate.|
|Scratch:||Withdraw a horse from a race.|
|Set Down:||1) To suspend a jockey, trainer, etc., from racing for
a specific period of time.
2) To ask a horse for speed.
|Sex Allowance:||Weight allowance given to females in races against males.|
|Shadow Roll:||Roll of sheepskin strapped across a horse's nose to keep it from looking down and shying from shadows.|
|Shed Row:||Track barn area.|
|Shoe Board:||A sign listing the kind of shoes to be worn by each entrant.|
|Shut Out:||Failing to get a bet in before the race begins.|
|Silks:||Jockey's jacket and cap, also called colors.|
|Sire:||The father of a horse.|
|Sloppy Track:||A running surface in which water stands on the surface prior to sinking in and running off.|
|Slow Track:||A running surface wetter than good but not as thick as muddy or heavy.|
|Sophomore:||Three-year-old equine; termed a sophomore because horses don't start racing until they are two years old.|
|Sound:||Free of physical problems.|
|Sprint:||A short race, usually 7 furlongs or less.|
|Stewards:||Three racing officials, who apply racing law to human and equine conduct at a race meet.|
|Stud:||A breeding stallion.|
|Sucker:||Refers to a horse which has the ability to win races but fails to go through with its run when faced with the prospect of taking the lead.|
|Tack:||The equipment that goes on a horse along with the jockey.|
|Take Out:||The money deducted from each wagering pool and apportioned to the state and the track.|
|Take Back:||To restrain a horse back off the pace.|
|Take up:||To pull a horse up sharply during the running of a race in order to avoid making contact with another horse.|
|Tele-timer:||Electronic timer that flashes on the tote board; it is activated by breaking a light beam.|
|Tongue Strap or Tie:||A cloth or leather band used to tie down a horse's tongue to prevent the tongue from interfering with breathing during a race or workout.|
|Tote Board:||Located in the infield, it provides odds to win on each entrant in a given race, plus individual and total amounts wagered to win, place and show; also provides fractional times of race, minutes to next race and other information.|
|Turn of Foot:||Acceleration.|
|Underlay:||An underlay is a over bet horse. See Keep's handicapping tips for more information.|
|Ungenuine:||Refers to a horse which fails to put forth a full effort, especially during the critical stages of a race.|
|Unsound:||Suffering from physical ailments.|
|Valet:||One who takes care of a jockey's clothing and equipment and delivers his tack to the paddock.|
|Weanling:||A newly weaned horse.|
|Weight:||Refers to the weight assigned to each horse. Includes the jockey, his saddle, and other equipment. Lead weights are carried in saddle bags if needed.|